Keva Noni


Keva Noni
(MRP-Rs.715/-)
Keva Industries has brought Keva Noni the most concentrated juice extracted from Noni fruit, Goji Berry and Withania Somnifera, this unique combination makes Keva Noni Nutritionally Dense health product. Its combination with Goji Berry & Withania Somnifera facilitates people to deal with the many health troubles of this current world." It is based on the latest grape juice extraction technology being used in California, USA for making natural health products. Keva Noni commits its excellence in terms of hygiene, quality control and presentation. It has been produced under International GMP regulations and awarded by WEPS with International Healthcare Excellence Award. Keva Noni is 100% natural & safe. The Anti - Oxidant properties of Keva Noni make this health drink the most unique product. It is the most unique Noni product that you can ever find in Indian market.
 
The Noni fruit is known as the”Queen of Health Plants" due to its wide range of applications, scientifically known as Morinda Citrifolia, which comes from a small evergreen tree, indigenous to South-East Asia, South Pacific, West Indies, Fiji, Vietnam and Tropical areas of Queensland. At this time Noni is being studied in over 45 universities worldwide. Scientists have found more than 160 nutrients in it. It has been used by millions of people worldwide for more than 2000 years with life changing results.
About Gojiberry
Goji Berry also known as Wolfberry, Duke of Argyll's Tea Tree (in UK). Goji Berry is helpful in treating various diseases. It becomes excellent product when it comes with Keva Noni. It promotes long and healthy life with strong immune system. The Goji Berries play an important role in treating many diseases like muscular pain, productivity troubles & week eyesight which shows its significance nowadays.

The medical reports and data bases of US government clearly shows the effective use of Goji Berry products, which declares that it can be used in positive way as a remedy for cancer. Now searches are being done by many universities throughout the world to find many more usages of Goji Berries. Many research reports have declared that Goji Berries are used to increase the longevity of life and the remedy for cancer by 50%.

They mainly Contain:-
  • Unique polysaccharides are also known as “Master Molecules” which fortify the immune system, command and control many of the body's most important immune systems.
  • 19 amino acids-- the building blocks of protein--including all eight that are essential for life and this is unheard of in the plant world.
  • 21 trace minerals, including germanium, a trace mineral rarely found in foods.
  • More protein than whole wheat (13 percent).
  • A complete spectrum of antioxidant carotenoids, including beta-carotene (a better source than even carrots!) and zeaxanthin (supports the eyes).
  • Vitamin C at higher levels than even those found in oranges (500%).
  • B-complex vitamins, necessary for converting food into energy.
  • Vitamin E (very rarely found in fruits, only in grains and seeds).
  • Essential fatty acids
  • Betaine, which is used by the liver to produce choline.
  • Goji berries are the richest source of carotenoids of all known foods.
About Withania Somnifera
Withania Somnifera, also known is an herbaceous shrub cultivated in North America. Withania Somnifera is reported to have anti-carcinogenic effects, possess good health restorative, sedative, rejuvenative and life prolonging properties. Its combination with our Noni makes our product more healthy and rich in minerals, vitamin and all generally required supplements which cannot be covered through our daily diet.

In the scientific study conducted by Lakshmi-Chandra Mishra, MD (Ayur), PhD – Professor of Research (Adj.) Los Angeles College of Chiropractic (LACC), Betsy B. Singh, PhD, Simon Dagenais, BA which indicates that Withania Somnifera possesses anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antistress, antioxidant , Immuno modulatory, hemopoetic, and rejuvenating properties. It also appears to exert a positive influence on the endocrine, cardiopulmonary, and central nervous systems.

Withania Somnifera is helpful in:
  • Anxiety, Depression, Panic Disorder.
  • As Antioxidant & Free Radical hunter.
  • As Body building Aid.
  • For Weakness, Fatigue, Herbal Rejuvenation, Aphrodisiac.
  • As Nerving tonic, calming and antistress agent and adaptogenic herb.
  • It is a good health restorative for aged persons who want to be younger than their age.
Need of Keva Noni
Keva Noni is truly the most exciting and promising Natural Health Enhancer that helps "sick" cells return to normal. It enrich our body with vitamins A, C, E, B, B2, B6, B12, Calcium, Iron, Niacin, Folic Acid, Pantothenic Acid, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Zinc, Copper and other minerals like Chromium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Sodium, Potassium, Carbohydrates and 160+ isolated nutrients. It has health-enhancing attributes that are Anti-bacterial, Anti-inflammatory, Adaptogen, Analgesic, and Anti-congestive.

Keva Noni is a cellular food which has a rich source of Proxeronine being a precursor for Xeronine a molecule required by many proteins of our body. Xeronine assists in enlarging the pores of the cell membrane allowing better absorption of micro nutrients and medicines and supports protein metabolism. There is no other tonic which works at the molecular level to build the cells like Keva Noni.


Benefits of Keva Noni
  • Detoxifies our body
  • Boosts Immune system
  • Regulates Protein in the body
  • Regulates proper cell functioning
  • Rejuvenates the cells of the body
  • Improves metabolic system
  • Reduces the risk of cancer
  • Relieves pain as an analgesic
  • Manages body weight
  • Facilitates sound sleep
  • Purifies blood
  • Diabetes
  • Improves digestion
  • Improves circulatory system
  • Stabilizes Blood Pressure
  • Maintains healthy skin, hair and scalp
  • Improves alertness, memory and concentration.
  • Manages disorders like arthritis, heart ailments and strokes.
  • Promotes self-healing mechanism of body
  • Relieves stress and helps to stay calm and relaxed
  • Helps body system to function properly (as an adaptogen)
  • Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antiparasitic. 
Nutrients found in Keva Noni
Damnacanthal - This nutrient has just been recently explored in scientific research and still is in its infancy. However, Japanese scientists recently were looking for a substance to fight cancer. They searched and did testing on over 500 tropical plants for something that would inhibit the production of RAS cancer cells. Those scientists found that the phytochemical damnacanthal was one of the ingredients that stopped cancer growth. After day by day observation, the effect of damnacanthal on the cells allowed the cell structure to return to normal in the body. 

Scopoletin - This is another little known enzyme/nutrient that can be very effective for different health aspects in the body. Scopoletin has been shown to exhibit analgesic properties. Scopoletin also seems to regulate blood pressure. If your blood pressure is up, Scopoletin can help lower it and when it is low it can also raise it. It also has anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-histamine properties. What is most interesting in regards to this enzyme is that it binds to Serotonin. Serotonin is a very important hormone that is better known as the "feel-good" hormone, as it regulates and plays an important role as a neurotransmitter in the modulation of anger, aggression, body temperature, mood, sleep, sexuality, appetite, and metabolism. 

Terpenes - Terpenes help with the rebuilding and the rejuvenation of cells within the body. Terpenes also combat fungal and bacterial infections in the body. Terpenes are the major components in the oils of citrus fruits and they include the bioflavanoids and carotenoids. 

Fiber – Keva Noni Juice is a good source of fiber, which helps cleanse the blood, decrease cholesterol, and balance blood sugar levels.

Amino Acids – Keva Noni is a very rich source of amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks for most proteins, which are essential for most body functions. There are 20 known amino acids and Keva Noni contains an astonishing 17 out of 20 of those amino acids, including 9 essential amino acids!! The essential amino acids are those that the body cannot produce on its own, so they are very important to get from the foods that we eat.

Fatty Acids - Fatty Acids are the building blocks of oils and fats. These acids help the body to maintain healthy skin, heart tissue, nerve cells and balance mood. Keva Noni is also a rich source of fatty acids. 

Adaptogen - An adaptogen normally refers to an herb that has an overall balancing effect on the body. In order to be referred to as an adaptogen, something must exhibit 3 characteristics. First, it must be nontoxic to the user, Second, it generates a non specific response in the body, not targeting any one thing, but helping the entire body. And third, it must help restore homeostasis or a state of balance within the body. Keva Noni has become known as the "premiere" adaptogen as its benefits have an entire body effect. It has been said that there are only 12 known adaptogens. Ginseng is also considered another one of these adaptogens. 

Alkaline - When tissues degrade and disease is allowed to thrive, environments of acidity grow in the body. Disease normally does very well in acidic places. Keva Noni promotes alkaline body chemistry, which is a good state of health to be in and have.
 

Other 160+ isolated Nutraceutical found in Keva Noni

 (ethylthomethyl) benzene
1-hexanol 
hydroxyanthraquinone 
2-heptanone 
2-methyl-2-butenyl hexanoate 
6-§-primeveroside 
2-methylbutanoic acid 
24-methylcycloartanol 
24-methylenecycloartanyl linoleate 
3-hydroxymorindone 
3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol 
3-methylthiopropanoic acid 
5,6-dihydroxylucidin-3-§- primeverosid 
glucopyranoside 
D(+)=galactopyranoside 
1,-O-§-rhamnosyl 
6-dodeceno-y-lactone 
methylanthraquinone 
acetic acid 
alkaloids 
anthraquinones 
asperuloside 
benzyl alcohol 
methyl octanoate 
methyl palmitate 
morenone-2 
morindanigrine 
morindone 
mucilaginous matter 
it-butyric acid 
nonanoic acid 
octadecenoic acid 
oleic acid 
paraffin 
pentose 
phosphate
physcion-8-O
1-butanol
1-methoxy-2-formyl-3-
2,5-undecadien-1-ol
2-methyl-2-butenyl decanoate
2-methyl-3,5,6-trihydroxyanthraquinone-
2-methyl-3,5,-6-trihydroxyanthraquinones 
2-methylpropanoic acid
24-methylenecholesterol
3-hydroxyl-2-butanone
3-hydroxymorindone-6-§-primeveroside
3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol
5,6-dihydroxylucidin
5,7-acacetin 7-O-§-D(+)-
5,7-dimethylapigenin-4O-O-§-D-
6,8-dimethoxy-3-methyl anthraquinone-
glucopyranoside
7-hydroxy-8methoxy-2-
8,11,14-eicostrienoic acid
alizarin
anthragallol 1,2-dimethyl ether
antrhagallol 2,3-dimethyl ether
benzoic acid 
butanoic acid
methyl oleate
morenone-1
morindadiol
morindin
morindone-6-§-primeveroside
myristic acid
it-valeric acid
nordamnacanthal
octanoic acid
palmitic acid 
pectins
phenolic body
physcoin
{L-arabinopyranosyl} (1-3)
{§-D-g-D-galactopyranosyl (1-6)
potassium 
calcium 
 campesteryl linoleyl glucoside 
campesteryl palmityl glycoside 
Carbonate
cycloartenol 
cycloartenol palmitate 
decanoic acid 
ethyl decanoate 
ethyl octanoate 
eugenol
gampesteryl
glycosides 
hexadecane 
hexanedioic acid 
hexose 
iron 
isocaproic acid 
isofucosteryl linoleate 
lauric acid 
linoleic acid 
lucidin-3-§-primeveroside 
methyl 3-methylthio-propanoate 
methyl elaidate 
proxeronine 
resins 
ricinoleic acid 
rubiadin-1-methyl ether 
sitosterol 
sitosteryl linoleate 
sitosteryl palmitate
sodium
§-sitosterol 
sterols 
stigmasteryl glycoside 
stigmasteryl linoleyl glycoside 
stigmasteryl palmityl glycoside 
trioxymethylanthraquinone 
ursolic acid
{§-D-galactopyranoside}]
protein
campesteryl glycoside
campesteryl palmitate
campestrol
carotene
cycloartenol linoleate
damnacanthal
elaidic acid
ethyl hexanoate
ethyl palmitate
ferric iron
glucose
heptanoic acid
hexanamide
hexanoic acid
hexyl hexanoate
isobutyric acid
isofucosterol
isolaveric acid
Limonene
lucidin
magnesium
methyl decanoate
methyl hexanoate
proxeronease
rhamnose
Rubiadin
scopoletin
sitosteryl glycoside
sitosteryl linoleyl glycoside
sitosteryl palmityl glycoside
sorandjidiol
stearic acid
stigmasterol
stimasteryl linoleate
stigmasteryl palmitate
terpenoids
undecanoic acid
 And many more

 

Recommended dosage for Keva Noni

Keva Noni is 100% natural & safe. It should be part of everyone’s life because of its cleansing, cell rejuvenating action and exceptional nutritional value. Following dosage protocol of Keva Noni is strictly recommended in order to ensure the highest purity and best results.

Age wise Daily Dosage for Keva Noni
Age: Days 1 to 3 Days 4 to 6 7th day onwards Month 7 onwards (Maintenance Dose)
2-8 yrs 2.5ml/day 5ml/day 7.5ml/day 5ml/day
9-18 yrs 2.5ml morning
2.5ml evening
5ml morning
5ml evening

7.5ml morning
7.5ml evening

5ml morning
5ml evening
18 yrs & above 5ml morning
5ml evening
10ml morning
10ml evening
15ml morning
15ml evening
10ml morning
10ml evening

Dos’ & Don’ts for Keva Noni

  • For best results, take Keva Noni twice daily.
  • Always drink Keva Noni on an empty stomach or at least 30 minutes before meal. You can take it 2-3 hrs after meal, if before meal it is not possible.
  • Always use measuring cap.
  • Dilute Keva Noni in 150ml water or any other juice.
  • Take lots of clean water along with Keva Noni.
  • For better results drink Keva Noni in a glass tumbler only.
  • Use Keva Noni twice daily for 6 to 12 months for better results.
  • Drink plenty of good clean water throughout the day to help your body flush out toxins.
  • If you get a Cleansing Response (a headache, soft motion, belching or itchy skin), drink more water and skip a dose or two depending on how you feel. Most symptoms disappear within 24 hours of discounting Noni.
  • Keva Noni is not recommended for children below one year.
  • It is not recommended to give Keva Noni to Pregnant and lactating women.
  • Moderately increased dosages are safe as per the condition of body, but larger amounts may cause a laxative effect.
  • Wait at least half an hour before drinking alcohol, coffee, tea, soda or eating anything. Alcohol, caffeine and food cancel out the effectiveness of Noni.
Keva Noni is not an alternative to medicine or food. It improves the efficacy and can also be taken together with any medications - there are almost no negative interactions. In some situations, noni allow other medications to act more efficiently.
Note: This product is not intended to treat, cure or prevent any disease. Please consult your health care professional.
The History of Noni - Traditional and Medicinal Uses
As far as research tells us, the history of noni is rich and varied. Noni is a fruit that has been around for nearly 2000-3000 years. Noni is scientifically known as Morinda Citrifolia. In traditional use, noni has been used worldwide for both medicinal purposes and food. Also in traditional uses of noni, it has been used in many other ways and virtually every part of the tree is used in some form or another. The history of noni tells us about the more widely known traditional uses and medicinal uses of the different parts of noni have been used to help heal wounds, to treat infections and also to treat diabetes, fevers and skin problems. Over 40 different medicinal remedies can be identified by researchers that were used traditionally by different cultures. Below is a table that shows some of the other traditional and medicinal uses of noni separated by the different parts of the tree used:
Plant Part Used Traditional Medicinal Uses
Leaves Relieves cough, nausea, colic (Malaysia), tuberculosis, sprains, deep bruising, rheumatism, bone fractures, dislocations, hypertension, stomach ache, diabetes, loss of appetite, urinary tract ailments, abdominal swelling, hernias, vitamin A deficiency
Fruit Lumbago, asthma, dysentery (Indochina), head lice (Hawaii), wound poultice, broken bones, sores or scabs, sore throat, peeling and cracking of toes and feet, cuts, wounds, abscesses, mouth and gum infections, toothaches, appetite and brain stimulant food, boils, carbuncles, tuberculosis, sprains, deep bruises, rheumatism, stomach ulcers, hypertension
Fruit juice Regulate menstrual flow, urinary tract problems, arthritis
Stem Jaundice, hypertension
Seed Scalp insecticide, insect repellant
Flowers Sties
Leaves, flowers, fruit, bark Eye conditions, skin wounds, abscesses, gum and throat disease, respiratory ailments, constipation, fever, laxative
Modern Uses of Noni Complementing the Traditional and Medicinal Uses
ADD/ADHD, addictions, allergies, arthritis, asthma, brain problems, burns, cancer, cardiovascular disease, chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue, diabetes, digestive problems, endometriosis, fibromyalgia, gout, hypertension, immune deficiency, infection, inflammation, jet lag, multiple sclerosis, muscle and joint pain, polio, rheumatism, severed fingers, sinus, veterinary medicine.
Noni Research and Studies
Herbal and natural products have been used for centuries throughout the world in every culture. The scientific community has begun to show more and more interest in these products as the benefits become even better known. Noni began to catch the eye of researchers worldwide early in this century, and one by one, studies have revealed the amazing qualities of the noni fruit.
This fact sheet contains a brief summary and interpretation of such studies which are important in understanding the value of this fruit.

Dr. Ralph Heinicke
Xeronine and Cell Regeneration
As a researcher in Hawaii, Dr. Ralph Heinicke became aware of the marvelous benefits of the noni Fruit and set out to find the pharmacologically active ingredient of the noni. Dr. Heinicke had spent over 45 years studying the effects of an alkaloid he discovered and named xeronine. Xeronine is a relatively small alkaloid which is physiologically very active and important for the proper function of all cells in the body.
In his research, Dr. Heinicke discovered that the noni juice contains appreciable amounts of the precursor of xeronine that he named "pro-xeronine." Pro-xeronine releases pure xeronine in the intestines when it comes in contact with a particular enzyme also found in the noni juice. Dr. Heinicke's theory, is that when released, xeronine actually works at the molecular level to repair damaged cells. Dr. Heinicke states that the primary function of xeronine is to regulate the rigidity and shape of specific proteins. Since these proteins have different functions within the cells, this explains how the administration of noni juice causes an unbelievably wide range of physiological responses.
"Some of the problems which drinking noni juice might favorably affect are: high blood pressure, menstrual cramps, arthritis, gastric ulcers, sprains, injuries, mental depression, senility, poor digestion, atherosclerosis, blood vessel problems, drug addiction, relief of pain, and many others. Although this list looks like a page torn out of a traveling medicine man's manual, it is probably conservative."
--Dr. Heinicke

Nitrous Oxide and Polysaccharides Noni Juice
Nitric Oxide
Dr. Jonathan S. Stamler, a professor of medicine at Duke University, wrote this in regards to Nitric Oxide, ‘It [Nitric Oxide] does everything, everywhere. You cannot name a major cellular response or physiological effect in which it is not implicated today. It’s involved in complex behavioral changes in the brain, airway relaxation, beating of the heart, dilation of blood vessels, regulation of intestinal movement, function of blood cells, the immune system, even how digits and arms move." Dr. Neil Solomon, M.D., Ph. D., also notes, "now research has shown that noni, the ‘miracle’ tropical plant, can stimulate the body to produce more Nitric Oxide, thereby preventing and helping to control various disorders." 

Nitric Oxide is very tiny molecule that basically tells every cell in your body what to do, where to do it and how to do it. Without Nitric Oxide, your body would cease to function. It helps to repair, maintain and keep healthy every cell in your body. Nitric Oxide is necessary in the body for fighting pain, improving blood circulation, and can help with weight loss by stimulating mitochondria that turn food and oxygen into energy. Nitric Oxide can also help insomnia, control diabetes, and improve sexual function. More than 70,000 scientific papers have been published regarding the role of Nitric Oxide in the health of the body. Noni is a fruit that stimulates the production of Nitric Oxide in ways that other foods cannot. Most people do not get eat enough of the right food that can help produce Nitric Oxide in the body, Noni Juice is an essential supplement that can help meet that need. 

Polysaccharides
Research done on Noni shows that it contains a polysaccharide-rich substance known as "noni-ppt". Polysaccharides have been known to increase the release of immune system elements that stimulate the production of white blood cells. White blood cells are those that are sent out into the body to search for and identify foreign items that produce disease in the body, working to render those foreign items harmless in the body. 

In a study conducted by the University of Hawaii, polysaccharides or "noni-ppt" were injected into mice with active tumors. Both Noni Juice and Noni-ppt have shown to be effective in anti tumor activity. The mice that were injected with the polysaccaharides lived on average 75% longer that those that didn't receive the polysaccharides (noni-ppt). By stimulating the immune system, Noni Juice is able to help the body to be able to better fight disease with the body. 

Neil Solomon, M.D., Ph.D. considered a recognized leader in medical nutrition and nutraceuticals, and is one the foremost experts on Noni (Morinda citrifolia). 
The Noni Phenomenon
According to Dr. Neil Solomon, Noni (Morinda Citrifolia) is a fruit with extraordinary healing properties. For use in the United States, the Noni fruit is prepared primarily as a food supplement in juice form. Although the plant is very bitter and has an adverse odor, the noni juice supplement is very palatable in taste and smell because of the addition of natural fruit and berry juices..... 

Noni’s Miraculous Health Benefits 

Research indicates that Noni stimulates the immune system, regulating cell function and cellular regeneration of damaged cells. The fact that Noni seems to operate on the very basic and critical cellular level may explain why it's useful for a wide variety of conditions. Dr. Richard Dicks, a clinician from New Jersey, says, "We're beginning to realize that we must get back to basics with our bodies. What it boils down to is, either burn nutrients or burn your body. Noni saves our bodies by giving us the nutrients we need." 

Increases body energy. 
Alleviates pain. 

Acts as anti-inflammatory and anti-histaminic agent. 
Has antibacterial properties that can protect against digestive and heart damage. 
Works with melatonin and serotonin to help regulate sleep, temperature and mood cycles. 
Inhibits pre-cancer function and growth of cancer tumors. 

The following table contains statistical analysis of the data, including both primary and secondary applications, that obtained from surveying more than 50 doctors and other health professionals who had taken Noni and/or given it to over 10,000 patients. It depicts the number of people who drank Juice for 23 different conditions, the percentage that were helped, and the primary active components (PAC) believed to be involved. It is my belief that although the PAC is the major component, it is the total blend of all natural ingredients that result in Noni’s optimal health benefits. 

Conditions Helped With Noni 

Condition Reported Taking Noni Percent Primary Active
to Respond to Noni For That Condition Helped Component
Allergy, decreased symptoms 948 84% Xeronine
Anti-Aging, Look Better 148 78% Terpene
Arthritis, Lessened symptoms 719 81% Terpene
Breathing, Improved 2854 77% Terpene
Cancer, Lessened symptoms 889 65% Terpene
Depression, Lessened symptoms 807 77% Terpene
Diabetes, Types I and II 2773 84% Scopoletin
Digestion Improved 1593

89%

Xeronine
Energy Increased 8327 92% Xeronine
Fuzzy thinking, helped clear 373 88% Xeronine
Heart Disease, Decreased symptoms 1123

80%

Xeronine
High Blood Pressure, Decreased 938 85% Scopoletin
Kidney Health Improved 2372 67% Xeronine
Mental Acuity, Increased Alertness 2983 72% Xeronine
Muscle, Increased Body-building 816 71% Protein
Obesity, Lost excess weight 2841 75% Xeronine
Pain, including headaches, decreased 4231 88% Xeronine
Sexuality, Enhanced enjoyment 1608 87% Xeronine
Sleep, Improved 1231 73% Xeronine
Smoking, Stopped 452 58% Xeronine
Stress, Helped cope with 4113 72% Xeronine
Stroke 1019 57% Xeronine
Well Being, Increased feeling of wellness 4561 80% Xeronine


 *Pooled percentage of people who experienced objective and/or subjective improvement of their signs and/or symptoms after taking noni. The majority of noni users who did not get optimal results failed to do so because they took a lesser dose and/or took it a lesser amount of time than recommended in the table below. 

Dr. Schechter
Dr. Schechter, director of the Natural Healing Institute in California, reports that there has been a wealth of information supporting the traditional uses and health benefits of Noni. He confirmed in an interview that the positive results obtained by physicians using Noni were consistent with the results obtained by naturopathic clinicians. Dr. Schechter has treated hundreds of patients with noni and has been very impressed with the variety of illnesses that responded to Noni. 

It stimulates the production of T-cells in the immune system. T-cells play a pivotal role in fighting disease.
It acts to enhance the immune system involving macrophages and/or lymphocytes, which are a vital part of your body's natural defenses.
It has been shown to combat many types of bacteria. 
It has unique anti-pain effects. 
It inhibits pre-cancer function and the growth of cancer tumors by allowing abnormal cells to function more normally. 

Dr. Schechter states, "As a clinical therapist, I have seen Noni generate significant, even profound, therapeutic benefits for both prevention and self-help of a wide range of health problems." 

AntiCancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia on Intraperitoneally Implanted Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Syngenic Mice
A. Hirazumi, E. Furusawa, S.C. Chou & Y. Hokama, Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc. 37: 145-146 (1994)
This is a very significant study by a team of researchers from the University of Hawaii led by Annie Hirazumi. Ms. Hirazumi became interested in the study of the noni fruit because of earlier experiences with its amazing qualities. Her father helped a good friend with the juice of the noni and later, Annie administered the pure noni juice to a pet dog that was dying. The dog recovered miraculously, and Annie set out to find out more about this incredible fruit.
The study by Ms. Hirazumi and her colleagues was conducted on live laboratory mice (specifically C57BL6 mice) specifically identified as very receptive to injected Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells. The mice were injected with active Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells (LLC). Untreated, the mice died from 9-12 days after injection from the tumor growth. A portion of the injected mice were treated with noni juice in five separate daily treatments. The noni juice was shown to significantly increase the life span of the treated mice (from 105%-123%) with 9 of the 22 mice surviving for more than 50 days. The experiment was repeated on a different lot of mice with similar results. The Research Team concluded that the noni juice: "....seems to act indirectly by enhancing host immune system involving macrophages and/or lymphocytes."

Induction of Normal Phenotypes in RAS-transformed cells by Damnacanthal from Morinda Citrifolia
T. Hiramatsu, M. Imoto, T. Koyano, K. Umezawa Cancer Letters 73 (1993) 161-166
In this study, a team of Japanese researchers studied the effect of over 500 extracts from tropical plants on the K-ras-NRK cell (a precursor to certain types of cancer). The compound, damnacanthal, found in the Morinda citrifolia (noni), was found to be an inhibitor of Ras function.
The research: Ras cells were seeded into 96 plates and incubated at 33 degrees Centigrade for 24 hours. The noni plant extract was added and the cell morphology was examined every day for 5 days. The Ras function was inhibited by the injected plant extract. This same compound has been found to inhibit the Epstein-Barr virus early-antigen activation.The extract from the Morinda citrifolia was found to be most effective in inhibiting Ras function among the 500 tested extracts.

Analgesic and Behavioral Effects of Morinda Citrifolia
C. Younos, A. Rolland, J. Fleurentin, M. Lanhers, R.Misslin, F. Mortier Planta Medica 56 (1990) 430-434
In this study, the team lead by French scientist Chafique Younos, tested the analgesic and sedative effects of extracts from the Morinda citrifolia Plant. They were aware of the traditional use of the plant as a general analgesic, and set out to determine if those claims were valid. The extract was shown to be non-toxic and did "show a significant, dose-related, central analgesic activity in the treated mice." This study included various experiments on the treated mice to determine the analgesic effect, if any, from the plant extracts of the Morinda citrifolia (noni). The conclusion of these researchers was that the extract did in fact demonstrate analgesic effects consistently in each experiment. The conclusion of this study included a simple statement from the authors: "These findings validate the traditional analgesic properties of this plant."

Conclusion
The above represent only a sample of the research completed on the Morinda citrifolia Plant. The results are conclusive in each case in showing the validity of the traditional use of the noni.

Upto 1900

Planta Medica 56(5):430-434 (1990)
Analgesic and Behavioral Effects of Morinda citrifolia
Chafique Younos, Alain Rolland, Jacques Fleurentin, Marie-Claire Lahners, Rene' Misslin, and Francois Mortier
Editor's note: this was a study of the roots of Morinda citrifolia.) The traditional therapeutic indications for the use of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) have been investigated. The lyophilised aqueous extract of roots of M. citrifolia was evaluated for analgesic and behavioural effects in mice. The extract did not exhibit any toxic effects but did show a significant, dose-related, central analgesic activity in the writhing and hotplate tests; this effect was confirmed by the antagonistic action of naloxone. Furthermore, administration of M. citrifolia extract at high dosages decreased all behavioural parameters in the two compartment test, the light/dark choice situation test, and the staircase test; together with the induced sleeping time, these results are suggestive of sedative properties.

Science in New Guinea 14(1): I7 (1988)
Antibacterial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants of Papua New Guinea
A.J. Leach, D.N. Leach, and G.J. Leach
Ten species of plants used by the people of Papua New Guinea to treat external bacterial infections was assessed. Activity was seen in extracts of Morinda citrifolia. The widespread medicinal use of these plants would suggest they do contain pharmacologically active substances.

Journal of the Chemical Society, Pakistan. VOL. 2, NO.2 (1980) Phytochemical Report
Isolation of β-Sitosterol and Ursolic Acid from Morinda Citrifolia Linn.
Viqar Uddin Ahmad and Shaheen Bano
A crystalline greenish yellow solid was extracted from the fresh leaves of Morinda citrifolia Linn. On recrystallization from methanol, white, shiny crystals were obtained. This compound was identified as ursolic acid. A second substance isolated was β-sitosterol.

Planta Medica, 1979, 36(2): 186-187
Some Chemical Constituents of Morinda citrifolia
Oscar Levand and Harold O. Larson
This paper outlines the process of separating several compounds from dried fruit of Morinda citrifolia L. (asperuloside, glucose, caproic and caprylic acids).

Antiseptic 67(3): 167-71 (1970)
Preliminary Phytochemical and Pharmacological Study of Morinda citrifolia, Linn.
N. Krisha Moorthy and G. Shama Reddy
The total extract of the roots of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. were used as an effective hypotensive agent in a majority of patients treated by Dang Van Ho in 1955. A preliminary report on the phytochemical and pharmacological effects of Morinda citrifolia roots and leaves is presented. Extraction procedures to isolate anthraquinones from the roots are given.

Pacific Science 4: 167-183 (1950)
The Antibacterial Properties of Morinda citrifolia
O.A. Bushnell, Mitsuno Fukuda, and Takashi Makinodan
Extracts from 17 plants were tested on 5 strains of pathogenic enteric bacilli. Morinda citrifolia was effective against the intestinal pathogens (Ps. aeruginosa, M. pyogenes and E. coli). The extract from the ripe Morinda citrifolia fruit was shown to have moderate antibacterial properties against Salmonella typhosa, Salmonella montevideo, Salmonella schottmuelleri, Shigella paradys, BH and Shigella paradys.

1991-1995

Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 49:23-32, 1995
Anti-Microbial Activity and Anti-Complement Activity of Extracts Obtained from Selected Medicinal Plants
Lochner, C.P., Burch, M.T., Mower, H.F., Berestecky, J., Davis, H., Van Poel, B., Lasure, A., Vanden Berghe, D.A., Vlietinck, A.J.
Selected plants (including Morinda citrifolia) having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatments of infectious disease was investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Several extraction techniques are explained.

Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society, 37:145-146, 1994
Anticancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Intraperitoneally Implanted Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Syngeneic Mice
Hirazumi, A., Furusawa, E., Chou, S.C., Hokama, Y.
Morinda citrifolia (noni) juice was shown to have antitumor activity on Lewis Lung carcinoma in mice. The ethanol precipitate (noni-ppt) was not directly toxic to cancer cells. Instead, it acts indirectly by enhancing the host immune system involving macrophages or lymphocytes. Noni-ppt had a beneficial effect when combined with sub-optimal doses of chemotherapeutic agents. This suggests a possibility of clinical application of noni-ppt in cancer treatment.

Master of Science Thesis for Biochemistry, Univ. Hawaii, Dec. 1993
The Isolation and Characterization of a Fluorescent Compound from the Fruit of Morinda citrifolia (Noni): Studies On The 5-Ht Receptor System
Sim, H.H.
The isolation and characterization of scopoletin from the fruit of Morinda citrifolia (noni) is presented.

J. Agric. Food Chem., 52(19):5843-5848, 2004
Chemical constituents of Morinda citrifolia fruits inhibit copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation
K. Kamiya, Tanaka, Y., Endang, H., Umar, M., Satake, T.
Extracts of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia inhibited arteriosclerosis (thickening and hardening of the arteries) by 88% and 96%. Two novel compounds (americanoic acid A and morindolin) were also isolated. Four other compounds were found to exhibit strong anti-oxidant (scavenging of free radicals) activity. The activity of these compounds is mainly due to their number of phenolic hydroxyl groups (weakly acidic organic compounds, containing one or more atoms of hydrogen and oxygen bonded together).

J. Medicinal Food, 7:343-348, 2004
The Evaluation of Nitric Oxide Scavenging Activity of Certain Medicinal Plants In Vitro: A Preliminary Study
Jagetia, G.S., Baliga, M.S.
In this in-vitro study, the authors evaluated the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of 17 commonly used medicinal plants. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. In terms of potency of scavenging activity, Morinda citrifolia (Noni) ranked 3rd among the 17 plants tested. The authors conclude that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite.

Cancer Letters, 73:161-166, 1993
Induction of Normal Phenotypes in ras-transformed Cells by Damnacanthal from Morinda citrifolia
Hiramatsu, T., Imoto, M., Koyano, T., Umezawa, K.
An anthraquinone, damnacanthal, was isolated from the chloroform extract of the root of Morinda citrifolia. Damnacanthal induced normal morphology and cytoskeletal structure modification in ras-transformed cancer cells. Thus damnacanthal is a new inhibitor of ras function (which is responsible for these cells becoming cancerous).

1996-2000

Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 49:23-32, 1995
Anti-Microbial Activity and Anti-Complement Activity of Extracts Obtained from Selected Medicinal Plants
Lochner, C.P., Burch, M.T., Mower, H.F., Berestecky, J., Davis, H., Van Poel, B., Lasure, A., Vanden Berghe, D.A., Vlietinck, A.J.
Selected plants (including Morinda citrifolia) having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatments of infectious disease was investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Several extraction techniques are explained.

Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society, 37:145-146, 1994
Anticancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Intraperitoneally Implanted Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Syngeneic Mice
Hirazumi, A., Furusawa, E., Chou, S.C., Hokama, Y.
Morinda citrifolia (noni) juice was shown to have antitumor activity on Lewis Lung carcinoma in mice. The ethanol precipitate (noni-ppt) was not directly toxic to cancer cells. Instead, it acts indirectly by enhancing the host immune system involving macrophages or lymphocytes. Noni-ppt had a beneficial effect when combined with sub-optimal doses of chemotherapeutic agents. This suggests a possibility of clinical application of noni-ppt in cancer treatment.

Master of Science Thesis for Biochemistry, Univ. Hawaii, Dec. 1993
The Isolation and Characterization of a Fluorescent Compound from the Fruit of Morinda citrifolia (Noni): Studies On The 5-Ht Receptor System
Sim, H.H.
The isolation and characterization of scopoletin from the fruit of Morinda citrifolia (noni) is presented.

J. Agric. Food Chem., 52(19):5843-5848, 2004
Chemical constituents of Morinda citrifolia fruits inhibit copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation
K. Kamiya, Tanaka, Y., Endang, H., Umar, M., Satake, T.
Extracts of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia inhibited arteriosclerosis (thickening and hardening of the arteries) by 88% and 96%. Two novel compounds (americanoic acid A and morindolin) were also isolated. Four other compounds were found to exhibit strong anti-oxidant (scavenging of free radicals) activity. The activity of these compounds is mainly due to their number of phenolic hydroxyl groups (weakly acidic organic compounds, containing one or more atoms of hydrogen and oxygen bonded together).

J. Medicinal Food, 7:343-348, 2004
The Evaluation of Nitric Oxide Scavenging Activity of Certain Medicinal Plants In Vitro: A Preliminary Study
Jagetia, G.S., Baliga, M.S.
In this in-vitro study, the authors evaluated the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of 17 commonly used medicinal plants. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. In terms of potency of scavenging activity, Morinda citrifolia (Noni) ranked 3rd among the 17 plants tested. The authors conclude that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite.

Cancer Letters, 73:161-166, 1993
Induction of Normal Phenotypes in ras-transformed Cells by Damnacanthal from Morinda citrifolia
Hiramatsu, T., Imoto, M., Koyano, T., Umezawa, K.
An anthraquinone, damnacanthal, was isolated from the chloroform extract of the root of Morinda citrifolia. Damnacanthal induced normal morphology and cytoskeletal structure modification in ras-transformed cancer cells. Thus damnacanthal is a new inhibitor of ras function (which is responsible for these cells becoming cancerous).

 

2001-2005

11th Ann. Res. Conf. on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, Poster Session. July 16-17, 2001
Morinda citrifolia and Cancer Prevention
Wang, M-Y
In an in-vivo study (conducted in a living cell or organism), Noni Juice reduced DNA adducts (chemical changes in DNA that result from damage), caused by the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz (a)-anthracene (DMBA). Noni Juice showed stronger antioxidant activities (natural body chemicals or drugs that reduce oxidative damage, such as that caused by free radicals) compared to Vitamin C, Pycnogenolâ, and Grape seed powder. The antioxidant activities of Noni Juice may contribute to the mechanism of reducing DNA adduct formation.                                                                                                                 

7th International Conf. on Eicosanoids and Other Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation and Related Disease, Poster Session. Oct. 14-17, 2001
Protective Effect Of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) On Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury In Female Sd Rats
Wang, M-Y
In an in-vivo study, Juice showed hepatic protection in rats’ damaged liver caused by CCl4. The antioxidant level was examined and the results indicated that Noni Juice may protect liver from damage by scavenging free radicals and blocking lipid peroxidation.

J. Agricultural Food Chemistry, 49(9):4478-4481, 2001
Flavonol Glycosides and Novel Iridoid Glycoside from the Leaves of Morinda citrifolia
Sang, S., Cheng, X., Zhu, N., Stark, Re., Badmaev, V., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T., Ho, C.T.
One new iridoid glycoside (defensive compounds produced by plants) and five known flavonol glycosides (which function as antioxidants) were isolated from the leaves of Morinda citrifolia. Their antioxidant (free radical scavenging) potential was measured, and all compounds showed antioxidant activity.
 
J. Nutrition, 131:3151S-3152S, 2001
Morinda citrifolia and Cancer Prevention
Wang, M-Y., Su,  C., Nowicki, D., Jensen, J., Anderson, G.
The authors report laboratory evidence supporting the possible prevention of cancer in rats by noni juice. They were able to demonstrate a reduction of DNA adduct formation in the heart, lung, liver, and kidney of laboratory female rats by 26%, 41%, 42%, and 80%, respectively. More dramatic results were reported for male rats. The authors theorize that the blockage of DNA adducts (compounds that attach themselves to DNA, which scientists believe are then involved in carcinogenesis) is largely responsible. Additionally, strong antioxidant activity (scavenging of free radicals) of noni juice was also demonstrated.

Annals of New York Academy of Science, 952:161-168, 2001
Cancer Preventive Effect of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni)
Wang, M-Y and Su, C.
Preliminary data indicated that 10% Noni? Liquid Dietary Supplement in drinking water for one week was able to prevent DMBA-DNA adduct formation. The antioxidant activity of Noni Juice was compared to the effects of vitamin C, grape seed powder, and Pycnogenol at the daily dose recommended by the manufacturers in the US RDA. The results suggest that inhibition of DNA adduct formation and the antioxidant activity of Noni Juice may contribute to the cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia.

7th International Conference on Eicosanoids and Other Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation and Related Disease, Poster Session, Oct. 14-17, 2001
Protective Effect of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury in Female SD rats
Wang, M-Y
In an in-vivo study, Noni Juice showed hepatic protection in rats? Damaged liver caused by CCl4. The antioxidant level was examined and the results indicated that Noni Juice may protect liver from damage by scavenging free radicals and blocking lipid peroxidation.

Journal Agricultural Food Chemistry, 49(9):4478-4481, 2001
Flavonol Glycosides and Novel Iridoid Glycoside from the Leaves of Morinda citrifolia
Sang, S., Cheng, X., Zhu, N., Stark, R.E., Bad,aev, V., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T., Ho, C.T.
One new iridoid glycoside and five known flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Morinda citrifolia. Their antioxidant potential was measured and all compounds showed antioxidant activity.

Cancer Research, 61(15):5749-5756, 2001
Two Novel Glycosides From the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Inhibit AP-1 Transactivation and Cell Transformation in the Mouse Epidermal JB6 Cell Line
Liu, G., Bode, A., Ma, W.Y., Sang, S., Ho, C.T., Dong, Z.
Two novel glycosides, 6-O- (beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-O-octanoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose and asperulosidic acid, were extracted from noni fruit juice. Experimental results indicated that both compounds were effective in suppressing cell transformation in cancer.

7th International Conference on Eicosanoids and Other Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation and Related Disease, Poster Session, Oct. 14-17, 2001
A New Selective COX-2 Inhibitor: Morinda citrifolia (NONI)
Su, C.
In vitro study showed that Noni Juice is a selective COX-2 inhibitor. In comparison to aspirin, Indomethacin, and Celebrex?, the selective inhibition is comparable to Celebrex?, a well-known selective COX-2 inhibitor.

11th Annual Research Conference on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, Poster Session, July 16-17, 2001
Morinda citrifolia and Cancer Prevention
Wang, M-Y.
In an in-vivo study, Noni Juice reduced DNA adducts caused by 7,12-dimethylbenz (?)-anthracene (DMBA). Noni Juice showed stronger antioxidant activities compared to Vitamin C, Pycnogenol?, and Grape seed powder. The antioxidant activities of Noni Juice may contribute to the mechanism of reducing DNA adduct formation.

Journal Natural Products, 64(6):799-800, 2001
Iridoid Glycosides from the Leaves of Morinda citrifolia
Sang, S, Cheng, X., Zhu, N., Stark, R.E., Badmaev, V., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T., Ho, C.T.
A new iridoid glucoside named citrifolinoside A, was isolated from Morinda citrifolia leaves along with the known iridoids asperuloside and asperulosidic acid.

Organic Letters, 3(9):1307-1309, 2001
A New Unusual Iridoid with Inhibition of Activator Protein -1 (AP-1) from the Leaves of Morinda citrifolia L.
Sang, S, Cheng, X., Zhu, N., Stark, R.E., Badmaev, V., Ghai, G., Rosen, R.T., Ho, C.T.
From the leaves of Morinda citrifolia, a new unusual iridoid, named citrifolinoside (1), showing significant inhibition of UVB-induced AP-1 (Activator Protein-1, which is involved in cancer induction) activity in cell cultures, has been isolated. 
XI Biennial Meeting of the Society for Free Radical Research International, Jul. 16-20, 2002
Protective Effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Plasma SAR and LPO in Current Smokers
Wang, M-Y., Cheerva, A., Su, C., Jensen, J., Nowicki, D., Anderson, G., Jensen, S., Fritz, J.W.
In this study, the authors examined the protective effects of Noni Juice on plasma superoxide anion radicals (SAR) and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) in current smokers. These two compounds, or their byproducts, are deleterious to human health, and are known to increase in smokers. A one-month randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial (neither the subjects nor experimenter knew who was receiving the test material or the placebo), was carried out. Sixty-eight subjects were supplemented with two ounces of Noni Juice or placebo twice a day for 30 days. There was no effect on plasma SAR or LPO levels in the placebo group. However, the SAR and LPO levels in the Noni Juice group showed a 27% reduction (p<0.05), and 23% (p=0.05) reduction, respectively. The “p=<0.05” means that the probability of getting different results in a duplicate test would be no greater than 5%. The results indicate that Noni Juice may protect individuals from oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke, and therefore may help to reduce smoking-related cancer risk.
8th Biennial Symposium on Minorities, the Medically Underserved and Cancer, Poster Session. Feb. 6-10, 2002
Cancer Preventive Effect of Tahitian Noni® Juice at the Initiation Stage of Carcinogenesis
Wang, M-W.
In an in-vivo study, Noni Juice reduced DNA adduct formation and exhibited hepatic protection. Noni Juice’s selective COX-2 inhibition and antioxidant activities may contribute to the mechanisms of both cancer prevention and hepatic protection.

93rd Ann. Meeting, American Assoc. Cancer Res. April 6-10, 2002
Protective Effect of Morinda citrifolia on Hepatic Injury Induced by a Liver Carcinogen
Wang, M-Y.
In an in-vivo study, Noni Juice showed a protective effect on hepatic injury induced by a liver carcinogen. As a selective COX-2 inhibitor, Noni Juice may protect liver by suppressing COX-2 enzyme.

J. Food Chemistry, 78(2):227-231, 2002
Antioxidative Activity of Extracts from Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) Root, Fruit and Leaf
Zin, Z. M., Abdul-Hamid, A., Osman, A.
This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative activity of extracts from different parts of Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.), including leaf, fruit and root. Methanol and ethyl acetate were used as solvents and antioxidative effects measured by a ferric thiocyanate method (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid test (TBA). Roots showed the highest activity of the parts tested. The results suggest that several compounds contribute to antioxidative activity of different parts of Mengkudu. Activity in the roots may be due to both polar and non-polar compounds but, in the leaf and fruit, only to non-polar compounds.  

Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 23 (12):1127-1141, 2002
Morinda citrifolia (Noni): A Literature Review and Recent Advances in Noni Research
Wang, M-Y, West, B.J., Jensen, C.J., Nowicki, D., Su, C.X., Palu, A.K., Anderson, G.

Morinda citrifolia L (noni) has been used in folk remedies by Polynesians for over 2000 years. Included in the anti-oxidant information are the results of a human clinical study in which heavy smokers, who drank Noni Juice for one month, showed a significant 23% and 27% reduction of free radicals in their blood. In order to reveal the nutritional and medicinal value of the noni plant, and to summarize scientific evidence that supports the Polynesians’ claim, the authors provide a literature review and recent advances in noni
research. Phytother Res., 16(7):683-685, 2002
Antitubercular constituents from the hexane fraction of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae)
Saludes, Jonel P., Garson, M.J., Franzblau, S.G., Aguinaldo, A.M.
A crude ethanol extract and hexane fraction from Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) show antitubercular activity. The major constituents of the hexane fraction are E-phytol, cycloartenol, stigmasterol, -sitosterol, campesta-5,7,22-trien-3-ol and the ketosteroids stigmasta-4-en-3-one and stigmasta-4-22-dien-3-one. E-Phytol, a mixture of the two ketosteroids, and the epidioxysterol derived from campesta-5,7,22-trien-3-ol all show pronounced antitubercular activity. 
Integrative Cancer Therapies, 1(2):110-120, 2002
From Polynesian Healers to Health Food Stores: Changing Perspectives of Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae)
McClatchey, W.
Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) is one of the most important traditional Polynesian medicinal plants. This is a literature review and recommendations for doing additional cancer research on noni. 
Proc West Pharmacol Soc., 45:76-78, 2002
Preliminary investigation of the anti-inflammatory properties of an aqueous extract from Morinda citrifolia (noni)
McKoy, M.L, Thomas, E.A., Simon, O.R.
The results of this study clearly indicated the anti-inflammatory potential of both orally and ip administered noni fruit juice extract. The results also suggest that there is a high probability for therapeutic effectiveness of the fruit juice against some inflammatory conditions as claimed by folklore practitioners in Jamaica. 
 
Journal of Food Chemistry, 78(2):227-231, 2002
Antioxidative activity of extracts from Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) root, fruit and leaf
Zin, Z.M., Abdul-Hamid, A., Osman, A.
This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative activity of extracts from different parts of Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.), including leaf, fruit and root. Methanol and ethyl acetate were used as solvents and antioxidative effects measured by a ferric thiocyanate method (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid test (TBA). Roots showed the highest activity of the parts tested. The results suggest that several compounds contribute to antioxidative activity of different parts of Mengkudu. Activity in the roots may be due to both polar and non-polar compounds but, in the leaf and fruit, only to non-polar compounds. 
American Society of Microbioloogy, Annual Meeting, May 2002, Salt Lake City, UT
Preliminary Evaluation of the Antifungal Activity of Extracts of Morinda citrifolia Linn.
Gerson, S.
Extracts of Morinda citrifolia Linn. exhibit significant antimicrobial and anti fungal activity against various strains of fungi and bacteria A. niger, C. albicans, E. coli, S. aureus, and T. mentagrophytes. 
93rd Annual Meeting, American Association for Cancer Research, April 6-10, 2002
Protective Effect of Morinda citrifolia on Hepatic Injury Induced by a Liver Carcinogen
Wang, M-Y.
In an in-vivo study, Noni Juice showed a protective effect on hepatic injury induced by a liver carcinogen. As a selective COX-2 inhibitor, Noni Juice may protect liver by suppressing COX-2 enzyme.
 
8th Biennial Symposium on Minorities, the Medically Underserved and Cancer, Poster Session, Feb. 6-10, 2002
Cancer Preventive Effect of Noni Juice at the Initiation Stage of Carcinogenesis
Wang, M-Y.
In an in-vivo study, Noni Juice reduced DNA adduct formation and exhibited hepatic protection. Noni Juice selective COX-2 inhibition and antioxidant activities may contribute to the mechanisms of both cancer prevention and hepatic protection. 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 23(12):1127-1141, 2002
Morinda citrifolia (Noni): A Literature Review and Recent Advances in Noni Research
Wang, M-Y, West, B.J., Jensen, C.J., Nowicki, D., Su, C.X., Palu, A.K., Anderson, G.
Morinda citrifolia (Noni) is reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, antihelminthic, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and immune enhancing effects. Pharmacokinetic study of Noni juice using scopoletin as a marker is included.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 12(11), part 2, (1354S), 2003
Synergistic effect of Noni Juice and methylsulfonymethane (MSM) on mammary breast cancer prevention at the initiation stage of chemical carcinogenesis induced by DMBA in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats
Wang, M-Y, Anderson, G.L., Nowicki, D.
An examination of whether Noni Juice and MSM have a synergistic effect on mammary breast cancer prevention at the initiation stage of chemical carcinogenesis induced by DMBA in female SD rats.
 
Natural Product Research, 17(5):355-360, 2003
Isolation and Structure Determination of a Benzofuran and a Bis-Nor-Isoprenoid from Aspergillus Niger Grown on the Water Soluble Fraction of Morinda citrifolia Linn. Leaves
Siddiqui, B.S., Sattar Ismail, F.A., Gulzar, T., Begum, S.
The leaves of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new benzofuran and bis-nor-isoprenoid, blumenol C, hitherto unreported from this source. The structures of these have been elucidated through spectroscopic studies and NMR data that are being reported for the first time. 
Journal of Plant Physiology, 160(6):607-614(8), 2003
Regulation of anthraquinone biosynthesis in cell cultures of Morinda citrifolia
Stalman, M., Koskamp, A-M., Luderer, R., Vernooy, J.H.J., Wind, J.C., Wullems, G.J., Croes, A.F.
Cell cultures of Morinda citrifolia L. are capable of accumulating substantial amounts of anthraquinones. Chorismate formed by the shikimate pathway is an important precursor of these secondary metabolites. Isochorismate synthase (EC 5.4.99.6), the enzyme that channels chorismate into the direction of the anthraquinones, is involved in the regulation of anthraquinone biosynthesis. Other enzymes of the shikimate pathway such as deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (EC 4.1.2.15) and chorismate mutase (EC 5.4.99.5) do not play a regulatory role in the process. The accumulation of anthraquinones is correlated with isochorismate synthase activity under a variety of conditions, which indicates that under most circumstances the concentration of the branchpoint metabolite chorismate is not a rate-limiting factor. Anthraquinone biosynthesis in Morinda is strongly inhibited by 2,4-D, but much less by NAA. Both auxins inhibit the activity of isochorismate synthase proportionally to the concomitant reduction in the amount of anthraquinone accumulated. However, the correlation between enzyme activity and rate of biosynthesis is less clear when the activity of the enzyme is very high. In this case, a limiting concentration of precursor may determine the extent of anthraquinone accumulation. Partial inhibition of chorismate biosynthesis by glyphosate leads to less anthraquinone accumulation, but also to a reduction in ICS activity. The complexity of the interference of glyphosate with anthraquinone biosynthesis is illustrated by the effect of the inhibitor in cell cultures of the related species Rubia tinctorum L. In these cells, glyphosate leads to an increase in anthraquinone content and a concomitant rise in ICS activity. All data indicate that the main point of regulation in anthraquinone biosynthesis is located at the entrance of the specific secondary route.
 
Angiogenesis, 6(2):143-149, 2003
Inhibition of angiogenic initiation and disruption of newly established human vascular networks by juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni)
Hornick, C.A., Myers, A., Sadowska-Krowicka, H., Anthony, C.T., Woltering, E.A.
We tested the effects of noni juice in a three-dimensional fibrin clot matrix model using human placental vein and human breast tumor explants as sources for angiogenic vessel development. Noni in concentrations of 5% (vol/vol) or greater was highly effective in inhibiting the initiation of new vessel sprouts from placental vein explants, compared with initiation in control explants in media supplemented with an equivalent amount of saline. These concentrations of noni were also effective in reducing the growth rate and proliferation of newly developing capillary sprouts. When used at a concentration of 10% in growth media, noni was able to induce vessel degeneration and apoptosis in wells with established capillary networks within a few days of its application. We also found that 10% noni juice in media was an effective inhibitor of capillary initiation in explants from human breast tumors. In tumor explants which did show capillary sprouting, the vessels rapidly degenerated (2-3 days) in those exposed to media supplemented with 10% noni.
Phytother Res., 17(10):1158-1164, 2003
Antitumour potential of a polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on sarcoma 180 ascites tumour in mice
Furusawa, E., Hirazumi, A., Story, S., Jensen, J.
An immunomodulatory polysaccharide-rich substance (Noni-ppt) from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia has been found to possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potentials against the immunomodulator sensitive Sarcoma 180 tumour system. The antitumour activity of Noni-ppt produced a cure rate of 25%-45% in allogeneic mice and its activity was completely abolished by the concomitant administration of specific inhibitors of macrophages (2-chloroadenosine), T cells (cyclosporine) or natural killer (NK) cells (anti-asialo GM1 antibody). Noni-ppt showed synergistic or additive beneficial effects when combined with a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic drugs, including cisplatin, adriamycin, mitomycin-C, bleomycin, etoposide, 5- fl uorouracil, vincristine or camptothecin. It was not beneficial when combined with paclitaxel, cytosine arabinoside, or immunosuppressive anticancer drugs such as cyclophosphamide, methotrexate or 6-thioguanine. Noni-ppt also demonstrated beneficial effects when combined with the Th1 cytokine, interferon gamma, but its activity was abolished when combined with Th2 cytokines, interleukin-4 or interleukin-10, thereby suggesting that Noni-ppt induces a Th1 dominant immune status in vivo. The combination of Noni-ppt with imexon, a synthetic immunomodulator, also demonstrated beneficial effects, but not when combined with the MVE-2 copolymer, a high molecular weight immunomodulator. It was also not effective when combined with interleukin-2 or interleukin-12.  
J. Medicinal Food, 7:343-348, 2004
The Evaluation of Nitric Oxide Scavenging Activity of Certain Indian Medicinal Plants In Vitro: A Preliminary Study
Jagetia, G.S., Baliga, M.S.
In this in-vitro study, the authors evaluated the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. In terms of potency of scavenging activity, Morinda citrifolia (Noni) ranked 3rd among the 17 plants tested. The authors conclude that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite.                                                         
 
J. Agric. Food Chem., 52(19):5843-5848, 2004
Chemical constituents of Morinda citrifolia fruits inhibit copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation
K. Kamiya, Tanaka, Y., Endang, H., Umar, M., Satake, T.
Extracts of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia inhibited arteriosclerosis (thickening and hardening of the arteries) by 88% and 96%. Two novel compounds (americanoic acid A and morindolin) were also isolated. Four other compounds were found to exhibit strong anti-oxidant (scavenging of free radicals) activity. The activity of these compounds is mainly due to their number of phenolic hydroxyl groups (weakly acidic organic compounds, containing one or more atoms of hydrogen and oxygen bonded together).

The Worldnutra, 2004 Conference. Poster Session #30
Total Antioxidant Capacity of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Products as Affected by Processing and Storage
Yang, J., Paulino, R.J., Janke-Stedronsky, S.   
Tropical noni (Morinda citrifolia L) fruits are commercially processed into juice and powders for disease prevention and therapies. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of fresh squeezed noni juice is equivalent to 127 mg ascorbic acid (vitamin C)/100 ml assayed by scavenging the free radical 1,1 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy. Two month traditional fermentation decreased the TAC of noni juice by 70%. Noni juice stored at 24°C for 2 months reduced TAC by 80%. Fresh noni juice stored at -18°C for 2 months exhibited no significant changes of TAC. The TAC of Noni powders dehydrated by hot air or freeze drying was reduced by 45% and 20%, respectively.

Hawaii Medical Journal, 63:182-184, 2004
Are immune responses pivotal to cancer patient's long term survival? Two clinical case-study reports on the effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)
Wong, D.W.W.
There are abundant claims of benefit from cancer patients' use of noni but no well-documented clinical reports in peer reviewed journals. The author examined 2 such claims through interview, and review of medical records and pathology slides. The author concludes that these cases are valuable experiences and hope to stimulate interest in noni research as an important part of adjuvant immunotherapy for cancer.
 
Chinese Journal of Physiology, 47(4):169-174, 2004
Effect of juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni) on gastric emptying in male rats
Pu, H.F., et al.
Male rats were given noni by gavage at levels of 0.25, 1, or 4 mL/kg once per day for 1 or 7 days," explained H.F. Pu and coauthors at National Yang-Ming University in Taipei. The rats in the control group were given water, while the rats in the experimental group were fasted overnight before measurement of gastrointestinal motility. The results suggest that oral noni inhibits gastric emptying in male rats via a mechanism involving stimulation of CCK secretion and CCK1 receptor activation.

J. Nat. Prod., 68:1720-1722, 2005
An Anthraquinone with Potent Quinone Reductase-Inducing Activity and Other Constituents of the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)
Pawlus, A.D., Su, B-N., Keller, W.J., Kinghorn, A.D.    
The authors first discuss the long history of usage of Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as noni, throughout much of tropical Polynesia, and the Hawaiian Islands. Also, its recent use as a dietary supplement in the United States has greatly increased. Accompanying these increased usages have been numerous beneficial health claims related to arthritis, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and overall health. In this study, the Pawlus group was able to isolate from the fruit of noni an extremely potent and potential cancer preventative, anthraquinone (a type of anti cancer drug). This new anthraquinone was nearly 40 times more potent than a positive control. Furthermore, it demonstrated no discernible cytotoxicity (damage to body cells) at the highest dose tested. In addition, eleven known compounds were also isolated and identified. This is the first report of the isolation of anthraquinones from noni fruits.

J. Nat. Prod., 68:592-595, 2005
Chemical Constituents of the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) and Their Antioxidant Activity
Su, B-N., Pawlus, A.D., Jung, H-A., Keller, W.J. McLaughlin, J.L., Kinghorn, A.D.   
The authors report the isolation of 19 phytochemicals (non-vitamin substances in fruits and vegetables that are important for health) from the fruit of noni (M. citrifolia). Two of these phytochemicals are newly discovered, having never been known to exist anywhere prior to this study. They belong to a class known as iridoid glucosides, which are important because of their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. One of the 17 remaining compounds, americanin A, was shown to be a potent anti-oxidant. The chemical names of each of these 19 compounds are also provided.  

TC Duoc Lieu, 10:128-132, 2005 
The Effect of Morinda citrifolia Fruit Extracts of Viet Nam on Rat Hepatic Enzyme Metabolism
Do Thi Tuyen; Ly Thi Bich Thuy; Nguyen Thi Ngoc Dao,
Morinda citrifolia, known commercially as noni, grows widely throughout the Pacific and is one of the valuable sources of traditional medicines among Pacific island societies. The authors tested the effect of noni fruit extracts of Viet Nam on rat hepatic enzyme metabolism. Noni extracts markedly reduced the pathologic changes observed in CC14-chronically treated rats. It significantly increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity by 31% compared with control model rats, and 38% compared with the untreated controls. The imbalance in lipid metabolism could be the reason for increase in lipid peroxidation. The treatment with noni significantly inhibited the rise of MDA, and improved antioxidant status in CCI4-treated rats. Furthermore, noni fruit extracts significantly increased the P450 activity in comparison with the negative control (especially, P450 reductase NADPH (CPR) activity). 

2005 IFT Annual Meeting, July 15-20 - New Orleans, Louisiana. Session 18E, Nutraceutical & Functional Foods: General I
Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni): A dual inhibitor of COX-2/5-LOX Enzymes
Palu, A.K., Jensen, C.J., Zhou, B-N., Su, C.
Morinda citrifolia L.(Noni) fruit juice has been used in all of Polynesia for over 2000 years for treatment of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, gout and many other ailments that had been reported in the literature. However, only recently that Noni has been proven scientifically to be efficacious in many of the diseases listed above and much more. Scientists around the world including us are using different types of experiments (in-vitro & in-vivo) to test the antimicrobial, anticancer, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory effects of Noni. The anti-inflammatory effects of Noni Juice was discovered by Chen Su et al (Wang et al, 2002) from our lab in which they demonstrated that Noni fruit juice are inhibitors of COX-2 enzymes. The previous discovery has led to the investigation and the subsequent discovery that Noni fruit juice also affects the lipoxygenase enzymes which are also part of the arachi-donic acid metabolic pathways. Noni fruit juice is potent inhibitors of 5-LOX and 15-LOX enzymes. Hence, Noni fruit juice is dual inhibi-tors of both COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes which are potential candidate for neuroprotection, anticancer and anti-inflammation. These inhibitory effects on the arachidonic acid metabolic pathways might explain at least in part why Noni fruit juice used as dietary supplements to improve our health naturally.
QUALITY OF LIFE RESEARCH Official Journal of the International Society for Quality of Life Research 14(9):P-70/1342, 2005
Abstract presented at 12th Annual Conference of the International Society for Quality of Life Research (ISOQOL) Quality of Life (QOL) Assessment in a Phase I Trial of Noni
Issell, B.F., Gotay, C.C., Pagano, I. Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI
The objective of this study was to identify the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of noni. Noni fruit extract is a popular dietary supplement that is widely used as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by cancer patients. Twenty-nine patients were assessed. The distribution of performance status, extent of disease and prior treatment did not vary across dose levels. A multilevel regression analysis of noni dose (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 g) and week of study showed a statistically significant [t(35) = 2.84, P = 0.006] decrease in pain interference with activities as measured by question 19 on the EORTC QLQ-C30 scale. Also, consistent marginally significant dose–response effects were found for global health status, physical functioning and fatigue. No effects were found on the BFI and CES-D. No adverse toxic events attributable to noni and no measured tumor regressions were seen. Conclusion: QOL measures may be useful for selecting dosing for subsequent phase II/III efficacy trials, particularly for CAM agents that are commonly used but of unproven value.

New Recearches
NONI RESEARCH: 2006

International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 57(7):556-558, 2006.
Mineral variability among 177 commercial noni juices.
Brett J West, Charles B Tolson, Randy G Vest, Summer Jensen, Travis G Lundell.
The industry-wide mineral profile of commercial noni juices was determined by analyses of 177 competing brands by Noni International laboratories. A large degree of variability was found in the concentrations of nine minerals, revealing that not all noni juices are the same. Many brands of noni juice have a different nutrient profile than that published by the European Union for Noni Juice. While potassium was found to be the most prominent mineral, its concentration in most commercial brands is of minor nutritional significance, contrary to claims made in some previous publications that were based only on the analysis of one minor brand name.
Journal of Food Science, Vol. 71(8):R100-106, 2006.
A safety review of noni fruit juice.
B. J. West, C. J. Jensen, J. Westendorf, L. D. White
A literature review and data from news studies are presented to describe the safety of noni fruit juice. Several preclinical safety tests and human clinical studies have revealed no adverse health effects, even at very high doses. The data from these studies support the continued use of noni juice as a safe healthy food.
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 12(22) pp. 3616-3619. June 2006
Noni juice is not hepatotoxic.
B. J. West, C. J. Jensen, J. Westendorf
Noni juice has been approved as a safe food within the European Union. A few cases reports suggesting a role of noni juice in acute hepatitis, due to anthraquinones, is not supported by chemical analyses, several preclinical safety studies, and a clinical human safety study in 96 volunteers. Liver function tests in these studies revealed no adverse liver effects, even at very high doses. Anthraquinones in noni fruit are of the wrong type and occur in quantities too small to cause any negative liver effects. A large amount of data reveals that noni juice is not hepatotoxic.
The 232nd American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA. September 10-14, 2006.
Evaluation of the allergenic potential of Morinda citrifolia L. leaf proteins, AGFD 158.
Brett J West and Afa Palu.
Analysis of proteins from noni leaves reveals that they are easily digested by pepsin, a digestive enzyme in the stomach that breaks down proteins. A characteristic of non-allergen food proteins is that they are readily digested by pepsin. This provides further evidence for the safe use of noni leaves as food.
The 232nd American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA. September 10-14, 2006.
Noni contains competitive ligand(s) binding to GABAa agonist receptors as an anxiolytic.
Shixin Deng, Afa K Palu, Bing-Nan Zhou, Jarakae C. Jensen, Brett J West. AGFD 67.
For the first time, the biological mechanism of noni fruit’s effect to help relieve stress and anxiety (anxiolytic), calm and relax, improve mood and sense of well being is reported. Noni fruit extracts effectively bind to gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAa) receptors. These are inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors found in the brain. Such binding activity is well known to produce sedative and anxiolytic effects.
The 232nd American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA. September 10-14, 2006.
Morinda citrifolia L. Noni: An angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. AGFD 130.
Afa K. Palu, Bing-Nan Zhou, Shixin Deng, Brett J. West
The possible biological mechanism by which noni juice may help control blood pressure is reported. In vitro (meaning in test tube conditions) tests found that increasing concentrations of noni juice resulting in more inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and more blocking of angiotensin (AT) receptors. Both ACE and AT receptors are involved in raising blood pressure, and inhibiting their activity may result in the lower of high blood pressure.

The 47th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy. August 5-9, 2006. Arlington, Virginia.
Constituents of the fruit of noni and their Selective inhibitory effects of cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme.
Shixin Deng, Afa Palu, Bing-nan Zhou, Chen Su, Jarakae Jensen, Brett West
Several phytochemicals have been isolated from noni fruit which selectively inhibit COX-2 in vitro, indicating potential anti-inflammatory activity. Of these phytochemicals, two novel compounds (not known to exist anywhere previously) have been discovered.
IVth International Conference on Aromatic and Medicinal Plants from French Overseas Regions. Tahiti. July 10-13, 2006. p. 12.
The inhibitory effects of Morinda citrifolia L. noni on phosphodiesterase enzymes: The possible mechanisms for increasing energy and improving diabetic conditions. CIPAM 2006 Abstracts.
Afa K. Palu, Chen Su, Bing-Nan Zhou, Brett West, Shixin Deng, Jarakae Jensen
Noni fruit juice has in vitro inhibitory effects on phosphodiesterase enzyme 3 (PDE-3), DPP-IV and aldose reductase enzymes. Noni juice is also an in vitro agonist of P2Y receptors, and is an in vitro PTP1B receptor antagonist. All these effects indicate the possibility of noni juice to help utilize fat and sugar stores more efficiently, as well as limit free radical production associated with exercise fatigue. This data suggests drinking noni juice may improve overall energy, shorten excerise recovery time, and help maintain appropriate blood glucose levels.

IVth International Conference on Aromatic and Medicinal Plants from French Overseas Regions. Tahiti. July 10-13, 2006. p. 28.
The inhibitory effects of Morinda citrifolia L. noni on phosphodiesterase enzymes: The possible mechanisms for increasing energy and improving diabetic conditions. CIPAM 2006 Abstracts.
Chen Su, Brett J West, Afa K. Palu, Bing-Nan Zhou, Jarakae Jensen, John Fritz, Anne Hirazumi-Kim
Noni-ppt, the ethanol insoluble precipitate from noni juice, was found to have anti-metastatic activity in mice. The anti-metastatic substance in noni-ppt was purified and found to inhibit the adhesion of tumor cells to tissues. This potentially explains at least one mechanism by which noni juice prevents tumor development in mice.

The 47th Annual Meeting of Society for Economic Botany, Folk Botanical Wisdom; Towards Global Markets. June 5-9, 2006. Final Program, page 71
Morinda citrifolia L. Noni has cholesterol lowering potential
Afa Kehaati Palu, Brett Justin West, Jarakae Jensen, Bing-nan Zhou.
Noni fruit juice was found to inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase in vitro. This enzyme is involved in the synthesis of cholesterol in humans. The observed inhibitory action may explain, in part, the mechanism behind the cholesterol lowering effect observed in a human clinical trial.

46th Annual Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention in Association with the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. American Heart Association. Pheonix, Arizona. March 2-5, 2006.
The effects of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice on serum cholesterol and triglycerides in current smokers.
Mian-ying Wang, Eric Henley, Jeanette Nolting, Alexandra Cheerva, Jarakae Jensen, Gary Anderson, Diane Nowicki, Stephen Story.
A double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in current heavy smokers revealed that drinking one to four ounces of Noni Juice for one month had a beneficial effect on blood lipids. These results indicate, for the first time, that Noni Juice is able to lower total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in current smokers.
Eur J Gastroenterology & Hepatology (2006), 18:575-577
Noni juice protects the liver
Claude J. Jensen, Johannes Westendorf, Mian-Ying Wang, David P. Wadsworth
This was a published correspondence to the journal editor refuting one of their recent published articles by Millonig et al. alleging acute hepatitis from a patient’s consumption of noni juice. Jensen et al. pointed out that there is substantial published data which shows that noni juice actually protects the liver from damage by liver toxic substances. Further, the authors discuss several problems with the article by the Millonig group: 1) no re-exposure test was conducted to confirm the observed toxicity results, 2) the article incorrectly cited support for the patient’s elevated liver enzymes from an earlier published article, which in fact contains research that shows pre-exposure to noni fruit juice protects the liver of experimental rats, 3) the Millonig group postulated that anthraquinones in the juice may have produced the liver toxicity. However, published reports confirm that anthraquinones are not present in the juice. Also, the absence of anthraquinones in Noni Juice was a prerequisite for the European Union’s 2003 approval of noni as a novel food, 4) the Austrian Agency for Health and Nutrition Safety conducted an independent analysis of Noni Juice with the conclusion, “the above described product has no toxic effects on the liver”, and 5) a trial was conducted with 96 human volunteers who consumed up to 750 ml of Noni Juice per day for 6 weeks. Blood chemistry analyses, including liver enzymes, showed no abnormalities. In the reply by Millonig to this article, she admits that no proof of causality could be established.

International Congress and 54th Annual Meeting of the Society for Medicinal Plant Research, Helsinki, Finland, Aug. 29–Sep. 2, 2006
Phytoestrogenic Activity of Morinda citrifolia L. Fruits
Simla Basar, Hassan Iznaguen, Andre Zeglin, Johannes Westendorf
Following a brief presentation of the growing and traditional health-benefits usages of Morinda citrifolia, the authors focused on the estrogenic effects found in Noni fruit puree. They found that a hexane extract of the puree produced a dose-dependent replacement of the natural hormone estradiol from its receptor. The compound responsible for this estrogenic activity was called CPx. Spectral analyses confirming its presence included UV, 1H NMR, and 13C-Pendant NMR.

J Vet Intern Med 2006. 20(3):756; Abstract #165
NoniEquine Essentials™: A Novel Anti-inflammatory and a COX-2 Inhibitor Which Regulates LPS-induced Inflammatory Mediator Expression in Equine Neonatal Monocytes
J. Xu, A. C. McSloy, B. K. Anderson, R. G. Godbee, S. F. Peek, B. J. Darien
Given the broad range of therapeutic effects attributed to noni (Morinda citrifolia), the authors tested their hypothesis that Noni would modulate endotoxin (microbial toxin that can cause inflammation) inflammatory responses in equine foal monocytes (young blood cells) by regulating COX-2 expression (an enzyme involved in inflammation). The test foals were fed orally 60 ml of twice daily for 60 days. Blood samples were taken at days 10 and 60, from which the peripheral monocytes were isolated and separated into test and control groups. The test group was then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 2 hrs. The treated foals showed a dramatic fold reduction in COX-2, TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor), ILs-1β, -8, and -6 (interleukins, protein mediators between white blood cells) mRNA (messenger RNA), compared to the untreated controls. A similar, but less dramatic, reduction was observed at 60 days. These results indicate that foals receiving the Noni may experience promising anti-inflammatory therapy.

3rd European Workshop on Equine Nutrition: Nutrition and Feeding of the Broodmare; Campobasso, Molise Univ., Italy; Jun 20-22, 2006
NoniEquine Essentials® Regulates LPS-Induced COX-2 and Cytokine Expression in Equine Neonatal Monocytes: A Preliminary Study
J. Xu, J. Cai, R. G. Godbee, S. F. Peek, B. J. Darien
This study was to investigate the effects of Noni on endotoxin-induced COX-2 and cytokine expression in the monocytes of equine foals at ages 0,10, and 60 days. Compared to the controls, the results showed that LPS-stimulated monocytes from the treated foals had reduced levesl of COX-2, TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor), ILs-1β, -8, and -6.

Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2007 Dec;99(12):737-738.
 Noni(R) juice is not hepatotoxic.
West BJ, Berrio LF.
Toxicology and human clinical safety tests have led to EU approval of Noni Juice as a safe food. The conclusion of safety cannot be applied to non-EU approved juices, whose composition and identity are unknown.

NONI RESEARCH: 2007

J Sci Food Agri. 2007 November; 87(14): 2583-2588.
Safety tests and antinutrient analyses of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) leaf.
West BJ, Tani H, Palu AK, Tolson CB, Jensen CJ.
Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) leaves have a documented history of food use. However, previous safety and antinutrient studies are absent. The current investigation was conducted to assess the utility of noni leaves as food. RESULTS: No evidence of toxicity or differences in weight gain were observed in acute, subacute, and subchronic oral toxicity tests of ethanol–water (1:1 v/v) and hot-water extracts of noni leaves in mice at doses of 2000, 200, and 20 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively. Acute systemic anaphylaxis tests of the ethanol–water (4:1 v/v) and hot-water extracts were negative. Further, leaf proteins were readily digested in simulated gastric fluid. Tannic acid concentrations in frozen and dried leaf were 1.6 and 25.8 g kg−1, respectively. Phytic acid was not detected in the raw leaf (<1g kg−1). The average oxalic acid content was 1 g kg−1 and was fairly uniform among 22 leaf samples from 11 islands throughout French Polynesia. Similarly, campesterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol content did not vary widely, suggesting low inter-island content variability. The apparent lack of toxicity of the leaves and the hardiness of the plant make it ideal for further agricultural development, especially where sustained growth of other food crops is difficult.

Phytotherapy Research. 2007 Nov; 21(11):1100-1101.
Evaluation of the ergogenic potential of noni juice.
Ma DL, West BJ, Su CX, Gao JH, Liu TZ, Liu YW.
Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice is an increasingly popular health food with many reported benefits, such as antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Traditionally, noni fruit was used by Polynesian to combat fatigue. Also, clinical studies have revealed that noni juice consumption improves quality of life scores relating to physical functioning and energy levels. To further evaluate the ergogenic (anti-fatigue and endurance promoting) potential of noni juice, aged mice were pretreated orally with increasing doses (10, 20, and 40 mL/kg body weight) of Noni Juice and then compared to young and aged controls in the forced swim test and rotarod test. The average times of all Noni juice dose groups were significantly longer than the aged controls in both the swim test (36 to 45 %) and the rotarod test (59 to 128 %), and were similar to those of the youth controls. This demonstrates not only an improvement in endurance but also in balance and flexibility. These results confirm the reported use of noni juice to combat fatigue, improve endurance, and increase overall physical performance.

Phytomedicine 2007; 14:517–522.
Noni as an anxiolytic and sedative: A mechanism involving its gamma-aminobutyric acidergic effects.
Deng S, West BJ, Palu AK, Zhou BN, Jensen CJ.
Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is increasing in worldwide popularity as a food or dietary supplement with versatile health benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Noni fruit on anxiety symptoms in vitro. To this end, a competitive GABAa receptor-binding assay was developed. Our preliminary study indicates that the methanol crude extract of Noni fruit showed significant affinity to the gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAa) inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors, and displayed 75% binding inhibition of the agonist radioligand [3H] muscimol at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. Further experiments demonstrated that the MeOH extract, and its BuOH and H2O partitions, exhibited IC50 values of 22.8, 27.2, and 17.1 mg/ml, respectively, in the GABAa-binding assay. Experimental results with Noni fruit indicate the presence of competitive ligand(s), which may bind to the GABAa receptor as an agonist, and thus induce its anxiolytic and sedative effects. The study provides an in vitro rationale for one of Noni’s versatile and traditional uses. In addition, an HPLC fingerprint profile of the methanolic extract of Noni fruit has been established for quality control purpose.

J Nat Prod. 2007 May;70 (5): 859-862.
Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Constituents of the Fruits of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Collected in Tahiti.
Deng S, Palu AK, West BJ, Su CX, Zhou BN, Jensen JC.
A phytochemical study of the fruits of noni (Morinda citrifolia) led to the isolation of two new lignans, (+)-3,4,3’,4’-tetrahydroxy-9,7’α-epoxylignano-7α,9’-lactone (1) and (+)-3,3’-bisdemethyltanegool (2), as well as seven known compounds, (-)-pinoresinol (3), (-)-3,3’-bisdemethylpinoresinol (4), quercetin (5), kaempferol (6), scopoletin (7), isoscopoletin (8), and vanillin. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 3, 6, and 8 were isolated for the first time from noni fruit. Compounds 1-8 were shown to inhibit 5- and/or 15-lipoxygenase, with IC50 values ranging from 0.43 to 16.5 μM. Compound 5 exhibited weak inhibitory activity toward cyclooxygenase-2.

NONI RESEARCH: 2008

J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Feb 12;115(3):502-6.
The effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) on the immune system: Its molecular mechanisms of action.
Palu AK, Kim AH, West BJ, Deng S, Jensen J, White L.
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulatory effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) in vitro and in vivo in mice. In vitro, Noni fruit juice concentrates (NFJC) (1, 5mg/mL) potently activate cannabinoid 2 (CB2), but inhibit cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors in a concentration-dependant manner. In vivo, oral administration of noni juice ad libitum for 16 days decreased the production of IL-4, but increased the production of IFN-gamma. These results suggest that noni modulates the immune system via activating of the CB2 receptors, and suppressing of the IL-4, but increasing the production of IFN-gamma cytokines. It may also exert beneficial immunomodulation effects in conditions involving inadequate immune responses.

Poster # 208. Joint Northwest and Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society. June 17, 2008. Park City, Utah, USA.
Noni juice increases athlete endurance via antioxidant mechanism.
Brett J. West, C. Jarakae Jensen.
Noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit juice was traditionally used in Polynesia to promote endurance on long ocean voyages. Further, in vivo tests have revealed that noni juice can significantly increase endurance. Two human clinical trials in non-athletes have revealed that noni juice can improve physical functioning and fatigue indices of quality of life surveys. Chemical analysis, as well as human clinical research, has revealed that no chemical stimulants, illicit drugs, or otherwise prohibited substances occur naturally in noni fruit juice. It was, therefore, proposed that the notable antioxidant activity of noni juice is the mechanism responsible for the anti-fatigue (or pro-ergogenic) effect. To test this hypothesis, commercial noni juice from French Polynesia was evaluated in 40 highly trained athletes (ages 18-27 yr). The athletes were divided into two groups of twenty each, with one group consuming noni juice and the other consuming blackberry juice as controls. Each subject consumed 100 mL BID of either noni juice or blackberry juice for three weeks. For each athlete, the time-to-exhaustion in the treadmill test (increasing resistance), blood analyses, and urine chemiluminescence analyses were performed at day 0, day 10, and day 21 of the test. By day 21, the time-to-fatigue of the noni juice group was increase by 22% (p<0.05), whereas no increase was observed in the blackberry juice group. Blood analyses did not reveal any significant effects, with the exception of increased mean lactate level in the blackberry juice at day 21. Chemiluminescence decreased by 25% in the noni juice group (p<0.05), demonstrating a significant decline in lipid peroxidation, due to the antioxidant activity of noni juice. This confirms the hypothesis that improvement in physical performance and energy is associated with noni juice's antioxidant properties. Further, the ability of noni juice to improve endurance in highly trained young athletes is demonstrated.
Some of the Current Noni Research
  • Dr. Ralph Heinicke and Afa Palu are working on the extraction and structure of Proxeronine and Xeronine in Noni Juice.
  • Dr. Anne Hirazumi Kim is doing follow-up work on noni and its effect on Lewis lung carcinoma cells.
  • Dr. Mian-Ying Wang is working on the first human clinical trial involving Juice. The study is on the "Chemopreventative Effect of Noni Juice in Human Smokers."
  • Dr E. Furusawa has researched the effect of Noni Juice and chemotherapy drugs on the sarcoma 180 line of cancer cells.
  • Individuals have uncovered Noni's ability to inhibit the COX-II enzyme while allowing the COX-I enzyme to continue to function.
  • Scientists are also investigating the antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasistic properties of Noni Juice.
  • Dr. C. Ho at Rutgers University is researching new novel compounds in noni.
  • Research is being done on the potent antioxidative properties of noni.
  • Researchers are investigating the toxicological, allergenicity, and genotoxicity of noni

 

Some of the Current Noni Research
  • Dr. Ralph Heinicke and Afa Palu are working on the extraction and structure of Proxeronine and Xeronine in Noni Juice.
  • Dr. Anne Hirazumi Kim is doing follow-up work on noni and its effect on Lewis lung carcinoma cells.
  • Dr. Mian-Ying Wang is working on the first human clinical trial involving Juice. The study is on the "Chemopreventative Effect of Noni Juice in Human Smokers."
  • Dr E. Furusawa has researched the effect of Noni Juice and chemotherapy drugs on the sarcoma 180 line of cancer cells.
  • Individuals have uncovered Noni's ability to inhibit the COX-II enzyme while allowing the COX-I enzyme to continue to function.
  • Scientists are also investigating the antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasistic properties of Noni Juice.
  • Dr. C. Ho at Rutgers University is researching new novel compounds in noni.
  • Research is being done on the potent antioxidative properties of noni.
  • Researchers are investigating the toxicological, allergenicity, and genotoxicity of noni